Garu Nunnery (Garu Gönpa) Garu Nunnery (Garu Gönpa)1 by José Ignacio Cabezón April 26, 2006 Copyright © 2006 by José Ignacio Cabezón and THL. Location and Layout The front façade of Garu Nunnery (Garu Gönpa). Garu Nunnery (Garu Gönpa), one of the oldest nunneries in the Lhasa area, is located northwest of Sera at the western end of the Nyangdren Valley. It takes about two hours to walk to Garu from Sera. The GaruGorge is relatively remote and quite beautiful. The area below the nunnery is pasture land, and is used by the nuns to graze their one hundred-plus head of yaks.2 These pastures gradually slope upward (north) to the hermitage (ritrö), which is located at the base of a very rocky portion of the northern mountains next to a stream. The nunnery faces south towards Lhasa, and it affords one of the most beautiful long-distance views of the city and of the Potala. The word garu derives from gar, which means “dance.” The famed Indian master Pa Dampa Sanggyé (b. eleventh century) saw ḍākinīs dancing at the spot where the monastery now stands, and gave it this name. As is the case with most religious institutions in the Lhasa Valley, the natural landscape surrounding the site is imbued with religious significance. The resident nuns associate several of the mountains near the nunnery with different deities: The peak northwest of the hermitage is called the Palace of Cakrasaṃvara (Demchokgi Podrang) Three rock outcroppings just north of the nunnery are called the Three Protectors (Riksum Gönpo) A flat cliff-face on a mountain northwest of the site is called the Mirror of Vajrabhairava (Jikjekyi Melong) Another peak northeast of the nunnery is identified as the Soul-Mountain of Mañjuśrī (Jampelyangkyi Lari) A short history of the nunnery identifies the various sites around the nunnery more extensively (though somewhat differently) than the oral account: The mountain in back [of the nunnery] is called “the Soul-Mountain of Tārā” (Taré Lari). Near that a [rock outcropping] that has the shape of a right-turning white conch shell is clearly visible. The western mountain is called “the Soul-Mountain of Mañjuśrī” (Jampelyangkyi Lari), and it has splendid pastures and rock-faces. At the foot of that mountain there is a “storehouse of sindhura”3 that emits sindhura on some holy days. On some occasions the sound made by a white conch4 can also be heard coming from the side of that mountain. To the right of that mountain is a rock-face that is considered to be a self-arisen image of Vajrabhairava because it resembles the body of the deity. To the left is an imposing mountain whose combination of meadows and rock-faces are considered to form a self-arisen image of Guhyasamāja. To the northeast is “the Soul-Mountain of the Arhats” (Neten Lari) that has amazingly designed rock formations. To the east is a mountain known either as “the Parasol” (Dukpé Lari) or as “Mañjuśrī Peak” (Jampel Lari).5 The entire area around the nunnery is said to be hospitable to a variety of wildlife. The various animals that live here, it is said, are unafraid of the human inhabitants of the site, occasionally even entering into the nuns’ rooms. The area is also filled with a variety of wild flowers and herbs. These are collected as the ingredients used in Tibetan medicine, and it is not uncommon for Lhasa physicians to bring their students to the area around Garu to teach them the art of identifying and collecting medicinal plants. Garu Nunnery is one very large compound enclosed by a perimeter wall. This larger compound contains within it several sub-compounds or complexes of buildings. At the very center of the nunnery is the largest and most important complex that contains the main temple, the kitchen, and several small chapels – a Scripture Temple (Kangyur lhakhang), a butter-lamp offering house (chömé khang), and a building where the nuns take turns keeping watch at night. These various structures, together with two wings of nuns’ rooms, form the central courtyard of the hermitage. These buildings also appear to be the oldest in the hermitage, and the nuns themselves state that most of the additional wings of living quarters located at the four corners of the larger compound were added later as the nunnery grew. The front of the main temple. To the north of – that is, just behind – the main temple there is a very long wing of nuns’ rooms. There are also different complexes of nuns’ rooms built around central courtyards at the northeast, southeast, and southwest corners of the monastery. The buildings at the northwest corner of the monastery, the nuns say, were used for visiting dignitaries; some of these may have also served as residences of senior nuns. There are other important sites and minor structures outside of the walls of the main compound: East. Along the eastern edge of the nunnery there is a small park that contains a public performance space. Lay people bring picnics and spend the day here when they come for worship (chönjel). On special occasions the raised concrete dais in the center of the park is used as a stage for folk opera or other performances. At the northern edge of that park are a stūpa and a guest house. In 2004, the latter had just recently been built. West. A stream runs along the western edge of the nunnery. The sound of the rushing water is said to resemble the sound of the “Three-Oṁ Dhāraṇī of the Queen Dorjé Tsünmo.” Near the place along the stream where the nuns come to collect the water, one can clearly see a self-arisen image of the letter “ba” on the side of a boulder. This is the seed syllable of Dorjé Tsünmo.6 Two mani wheels (mani khorlo) have been built over the stream; they are made to turn by the power of the rushing water. South. Several small shrines are found just outside the southern perimeter wall of the nunnery. One of these, called the Damala Nyak, marks the spot where Pa Dampa Sanggyé heard the word “dama.” Another is said to mark the spot where he received an offering of milk from a magical white cow that was a Buddha-emanation, and near to this is the boulder with the self-arisen letters “a ma” into which the cow dissolved. (See below for more detailed accounts of the narratives related to these various sites.) North. At the northern edge of the nunnery there is relatively little – only one small shrine to a Tenma deity, and a few boulders with self-arisen images. The park and performance area in the foreground, with the guest house and stūpa behind it. About one kilometer south of the monastery, just off the main road, is a small shrine that contains a self-arisen image of one of the eyes of Cakrasaṃvara (Demchok).7 Almost all of the statuary and art inside the temple is new, but Garu is unusual insofar as we have some idea of the images that existed inside the main temple prior to 1959. That main temple was a “twelve pillar” temple,8 and the central image on its main altar was a Thousand-Armed Avalokiteśvara, one-story tall. To the left was a smaller Thousand-Armed Avalokiteśvara figure and to the right was a statue of Pa Dampa Sanggyé when he was an eight-year-old child.9 On his lap was kept a manuscript text of a prayer (about ten folios in length) said to have been written by Pa Dampa Sanggyé in his own hand.10 This statue and Pa Dampa’s own manuscript text were together considered the “main inner image(s)” (nangten tsowo) of the nunnery. On the interior walls of the temple there hung a series of fifteen extremely well-executed tangkas of the “Eighty Deeds of Tsongkhapa” (Tsongkha Gyepchu), donated to the monastery by “a Mongolian queen.”11 Apparently the Thirteenth Dalai Lama (Dalai Lama Kutreng Chuksumpa) asked for these to be brought to the Norbu Lingkha, the Dalai Lamas’ summer palace, and told the nuns to ask for anything they wanted in return. The elder nuns, however, declined, refusing to part with the tangkas, and so the paintings remained in the nunnery until 1959. Their whereabouts today are unknown. In addition, the following statues were to be found in the temple: A life-size figure of Vajrayoginī (Dorjé Neljorma) A series of statues of the various incarnations of the Dalai Lamas12 Four metal-alloy statues of the Drakri incarnations (Drakri Trülku)13 that were said to be simulacra (draku) – that is, actually resembling these various figures Two sets of statues of the Eight Medicine Buddhas (Menla Deshek Gyé), one made of clay (and life-size), another of metal (and smaller) A life-size statue of Pabongkha Rinpoché In addition to these various statues, as representatives of the Buddha’s speech there were: A volume of the Eight Thousand Line Perfection of Wisdom Sūtra (Pakpa Sherapkyi Paröltu Chinpa Gyetongpé Do, Āryāṣṭasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra) written in gold A complete set of the Kangyur Complete sets of the short, middling, and extensive Perfection of Wisdom Sūtras (Sherapkyi Paröltu Chinpé Do, Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra). As representations of the Buddha’s mind, there were replicas of the “eight shāli stūpas of India.” In the altar of Drakri Rinpoché’s rooms, located on top of the main temple, there used to be very fine statues of the Sixteen Arhats (Neten Chudruk), the Hashang, and the four direction protectors. In the protector deity chapel (gönkhang) there were statues of: Six-Armed Mahākāla (Gönpo Chakdruk) Hayagrīva in his “Secret Accomplishment” form (Tamdrin Sangdrup)14 Dharmarāja (Damchen Chögyel) Penden Lhamo Vaiśravaṇa (Namsé) mgon po a gho[ra] . It appears that only the head of this deity survives. In 2004, the body of the image had yet to be created. Gyelchen Karma Trinlé The head or face-mask of mgon po a gho[ra] in the protector deity chapel. On the topmost floor there was a Tārā chapel (Drölma Lhakhang) with statues of the twenty-one Tārās. There was also a statue of Maitreya (Jampa) in this chapel. In addition to these various images, there were also two self-arisen footprints (zhapjé) – one made by Pa Dampa Sanggyé, and the other by the horse of the second Drakri incarnation Gyatso Chönjor (Drakri Kutreng Nyipa Gyatso Chönjor).15 With one or two exceptions, none of the various images and religious artifacts mentioned above survived the Cultural Revolution, though many have been replaced by replicas. History16 A statue of Pa Dampa Sanggyé at Garu Nunnery. Tradition has it that the famous Indian master and founder of the “Pacification” (Zhijé) school, Pa Dampa Sanggyé, came upon the site at one point in his peregrinations throughout Tibet.17 Stopping to rest on a boulder, he was approached by a white cow who offered him her milk. After drinking, Pa Dampa Sanggyé continued on his way, but the cow would not stop following him, so he turned to her and said, “Mother (ama), please stay here!” No sooner had he said these words than the cow dissolved into a nearby boulder, and at that moment the letters a ma emerged as self-arisen letters on the boulder’s surface. This boulder with the self-arisen letters – called the “ama boulder” – can be seen at Garu to this day. Pa Dampa Sanggyé then realized that this was a sign that a monastic institution should be founded at this site. There only remained the question of whether he should found a nunnery or a monastery for male monks there. As he was contemplating this, he heard the enchanted sound of goddesses from atop a nearby pass called Tama Donyak.18 Looking up, he saw goddesses dancing there. Because he had seen female deities, he took this as a sign of the fact that he was to found a nunnery at the site, and he gave it the name “Dance Gompa: Place of Meditative Equipoise” (Gargön Samten Ling). Before 1959, there was a square stone throne that was reputed to be the place where Pa Dampa sat as he performed the so-called “site investigations” (saché) to determine the exact place on which to build the nunnery, but this throne apparently has been destroyed. The first nuns who lived at Garu were of course followers of Pa Dampa Sanggyé, and therefore practiced the various meditational techniques of the Pacification school. Over the period of several centuries, however, the oral tradition of the Pacification system “deteriorated,” and the one contemporary written account of the nunnery available to us states that the nuns, of their own volition, approached the great eighteenth-century Gelukpa master (and abbot of Pabongkha Hermitage [Pabongkha Ritrö]), Drakri Gyatso Tayé.19 They asked him to become their lama, and to take responsibility for the nunnery.20 He agreed, and for the past two centuries the nunnery has been under the aegis of the Drakri lamas, who have acted as both patrons and as the spiritual leaders to the institution. It was a tradition for the Drakri lama to come to the nunnery in the latter half of the fifth Tibetan month every year to conduct memorization exams, and this tradition was maintained up to 1959. Since the re-founding of the nunnery in the mid 1980s, the former administrative head (chandzö) of the Drakri Lama’s estate (Drakri Labrang) has substituted for Drakri Rinpoché, who today lives in exile in India. He comes to the nunnery at least once a year to administer these exams. Two nuns take a break from kitchen duties to pose for a picture. Before 1959, the nunnery was responsible for doing rituals for the Tibetan government – for example, accumulating repetitions of the “Prayer to the Twenty-One Tārās” at certain specific times throughout the year.21 These ritual commissions on behalf of the Tibetan government were transacted through the intermediary of the Drakri Lama’s estate. It was probably also because of its formal relationship to this lama’s estate (labrang) that the nunnery was considered a “state monastery” (zhunggön). Such a status brought with it not only economic but also social privilege; for example, the nuns were entitled to have an audience with the Dalai Lama every year in the Norbu Lingkha, the Dalai Lama’s summer palace, during the eighth Tibetan month. Before 1959, it was the elder nuns who were responsible for the day-to-day administration of the nunnery. Nuns occupied the position of: “senior teacher” (loppön): responsible for overseeing all internal work and external relations, and therefore the functional equivalent of an abbot chant leader (umdzé): responsible for making preparations for (as well as for leading) ritual events, and two “representatives” (chimi): responsible for the financial affairs of the nunnery, for external relations (e.g., to patrons), and for fundraising; they were also the main conduits to the Drakri Lama’s estate. Nuns also occupied minor posts like temple attendant (gonyer). Even today the nuns divide the administrative work of the nunnery among themselves according to seniority, holding each of the various offices for fixed terms. Having been deprived of all sources of income after 1959, in order to survive, the nuns turned to growing and selling bamboo for a period of time. The Cultural Revolution, however, brought an end to this. The nunnery was forcibly depopulated and much of it was destroyed. Fundraising for reconstruction began in 1980. A group of fourteen former nuns asked for permission to rebuild, and were able to gather 390,000 ¥ from the Tibetan laity, and 20,000¥ from the local government authorities. The work of rebuilding the nunnery began in 1985, and was completed in a short time. Glossary Note: The glossary is organized into sections according to the main language of each entry. The first section contains Tibetan words organized in Tibetan alphabetical order. To jump to the entries that begin with a particular Tibetan root letter, click on that letter below. Columns of information for all entries are listed in this order: THL Extended Wylie transliteration of the term, THL Phonetic rendering of the term, the English translation, the Sanskrit equivalent, associated dates, and the type of term. To view the glossary sorted by any one of these rubrics, click on the corresponding label (such as “Phonetics”) at the top of its column.Ka | Kha | Ga | Nga | Ca | Cha | Ja | Nya | Ta | Tha | Da | Na | Pa | Pha | Ba | Ma | Tsa | Tsha | Dza | Wa | Zha | Za | ’A | Ya | Ra | La | Sha | Sa | Ha | AKaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypeka thung katungshort pillar Term ka ring karinglong pillar Term kang shi KangshiKangxi 1654-1722 Person kun rig rnam par snang mdzad Künrik Nampar NangdzéSarvavid Vairocana Buddha ke’u tshang Keutsang Monastery ke’u tshang keutsangcave, cavern, or overhang Term ke’u tshang sku phreng lnga pa Keutsang Kutreng Ngapathe fifth Keutsang incarnation Person ke’u tshang sku phreng gnyis pa Keutsang Kutreng Nyipathe second Keutsang incarnation b. 1791 Person ke’u tshang sku phreng gnyis pa blo bzang ’jam dbyangs smon lam Keutsang Kutreng Nyipa Lozang Jamyang Mönlamthe second Keutsang incarnation Lozang Jamyang Mönlam b. 1791 Person ke’u tshang sku phreng dang po byams pa smon lam Keutsang Kutreng Dangpo Jampa Mönlamthe first Keutsang incarnation Jampa Mönlam d. 1790 Person ke’u tshang ’jam dbyangs blo gsal Keutsang Jamyang Losel Person ke’u tshang nub Keutsang NupKeutsang West Monastery ke’u tshang nub ri khrod Keutsang Nup RitröKeutsang West Hermitage Monastery ke’u tshang sprul sku Keutsang TrülkuKeutsang incarnation Person ke’u tshang bla brang Keutsang LabrangKeutsang Lama’s estate Monastery ke’u tshang bla ma Keutsang Lama Person ke’u tshang ri khrod Keutsang RitröKeutsang Hermitage Monastery ke’u tshang shar Keutsang SharKeutsang East Monastery ke’u tshang shar ri khrod Keutsang Shar RitröKeutsang East Hermitage Monastery kong po jo rdzong Kongpo Jodzong Place krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang Trunggö Börikpa Petrünkhang Publisher klong rdol bla ma ngag dbang blo bzang Longdöl Lama Ngawang Lozang 1719-1794 Person dkar chag karchakinventory Term dkar chag karchakcatalogue Term bka’ ’gyur KangyurScriptures Tibetan text collection bka’ ’gyur lha khang Kangyur lhakhangScripture Temple Building bka’ brgyud Kargyü Organization bka’ gdams pa Kadampa Organization bka’ gdams lha khang Kadam LhakhangKadam Chapel Room bka’ babs bu chen brgyad kabap buchen gyéeight great close disciples Term bka’ babs ming can brgyad Kabap Mingchen Gyéthe “eight great ones who were named to receive the oral instructions” bkra shis chos gling Trashi Chöling Monastery bkra shis chos gling ri khrod Trashi Chöling RitröTrashi Chöling Hermitage Monastery bkra shis gser nya trashi sernyatwo auspicious golden fish Term bkra shis lhun po Trashi Lhünpo Monastery sku mkhar kukharcastle Term sku mkhar ma ru Kukhar MaruMaru Castle Building sku bzhi khang Kuzhi KhangChapel of the Four Statues Room sku rim grwa tshang kurim dratsangritual college Term bskang gso kangsopropitiation ritual Ritual bskal bzang rgya mtsho Kelzang Gyatso 1708-1757 Person KhaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypekhang tshan khangtsenregional house Term khams Kham Place khal khela unit of weight/volume equal to about 25-30 lbs. Term khri byang sku phreng gsum pa blo bzang ye shes Trijang Kutreng Sumpa Lozang Yeshéthe third Trijang incarnation Lozang Yeshé 1901-1981 Person khri byang rin po che Trijang Rinpoché 1901-1981 Person khrod tröin the midst of Term khrod tröon the side of Term mkhan ngag dbang bstan ’dzin Khen Ngawang Tendzin Person mkha’ spyod dbyings Khachö Ying Room mkhar rdo Khardo Monastery mkhar rdo sku phreng lnga pa jam dbyangs chos kyi dbang phyug Khardo Kutreng Ngapa Jamyang Chökyi Wangchukthe fifth Khardo incarnation Jamyang Chökyi Wangchuk 19th-20th centuries Person mkhar rdo sku phreng drug pa ’jam dpal thub bstan nyan grags rgya mtsho Khardo Kutreng Drukpa Jampel Tupten Nyendrak Gyatsothe sixth Khardo incarnation Jampel Tupten Nyendrak Gyatso 1909/12?-1956? Person mkhar rdo sku phreng bdun pa ’jam dpal bstan ’dzin nyan grags rgya mtsho Khardo Kutreng Dünpa Jampel Tendzin Nyendrak Gyatsothe seventh Khardo incarnation Jampel Tendzin Nyendrak Gyatso Person mkhar rdo sku phreng bzhi pa padma dga’ ba’i rdo rje Khardo Kutreng Zhipa Pema Gawé Dorjéthe fourth Khardo incarnation Pema Gawé Dorjé 19th century Person mkhar rdo sku phreng gsum pa chos kyi rdo rje Khardo Kutreng Sumpa Chökyi Dorjéthe third Khardo incarnation Chökyi Dorjé b. 18th century Person mkhar rdo sku phreng gsum pa rigs ’dzin chos kyi rdo rje Khardo Kutreng Sumpa Rikdzin Chökyi Dorjéthe third Khardo incarnation Rikdzin Chökyi Dorjé Person mkhar rdo mthun mchod Khardo Tünchö Festival mkhar rdo ba Khardowa Person mkhar rdo bla brang Khardo LabrangKhardo Lama’s estate Organization mkhar rdo tshoms chen Khardo TsomchenKhardo Assembly Hall Room mkhar rdo ri khrod Khardo RitröKhardo Hermitage Monastery mkhar rdo rin po che Khardo Rinpoché Person mkhar rdo srong btsan Khardo Songtsen Buddha mkhar rdo sgrub sde gsum Khardo Drupdé Sumthe three practice centers of kardo Monastery mkhar rdo ba Khardowa Person mkhar rdo bla ma Khardo Lama Person mkhar rdo bzod pa rgya mtsho Khardo Zöpa Gyatso 1672-1749 Person mkhar rdo gshin rje ’khrul ’khor Khardo Shinjé TrülkhorKhardo (Hermitage’s) Lord of Death Machine Term mkhas grub rje Kedrupjé 1385-1438 Person ’khon ston Khöntön 1561-1637 Person ’khon ston dpal ’byor lhun grub Khöntön Peljor Lhündrup 1561-1637 Person ’khrungs dbu rtse Trung UtséBirth Peak Place ’khrungs ba’i bla ri Trungwé LariBirth Soul Mountain Place ’khrungs ba’i lha ri Trungwé LhariBirth Deity Peak Place GaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypega ru Garu Monastery ga ru Garudance Term ga ru dgon pa Garu GönpaGaru Nunnery Monastery gar gardance Term gar dgon bsam gtan gling Gargön Samten LingDance Gompa: Place of Meditative Equipoise Monastery gar dgon bsam gtan gling gi lo rgyus mun sel mthong ba don ldan Gargön Samten Linggi Logyü Münsel Tongwa DöndenA History of Gargön Samten Ling: Clearing Away Darkness, Meaningful to Behold Tibetan text title gar lo GarloA History of Garu [Nunnery] Tibetan text title gu ru rin po che Guru Rinpoché 8th century Person grub thob lha khang Druptop LhakhangSiddha Chapel Room grog mo chu mig Drokmo ChumikRavine Spring Place grong smad Drongmé Place grwa tshang byes Dratsang JéJé College Monastery grwa tshang smad Dratsang MéMé College Monastery grwa bzhi Drapchi Building grwa bzhi lha khang Drapchi LhakhangDrapchi Temple Building glang dar ma Langdarma d. 842 Person dga’ chos dbyings Gachö Ying Room dga’ ldan Ganden Monastery dga’ ldan khri pa Ganden tripathrone-holder of Ganden Term dga’ ldan lnga mchod Ganden Ngamchöthe Ganden Feast of the 25th Festival dga ldan chos ’nyung bai ḍūrya ser po Ganden Chönyung Baidurya SerpoYellow Lapis: A History of the Ganden [School] Tibetan text title dga’ ldan pho brang Ganden PodrangGanden Palace Organization dga’ spyod dbyings Gachö Ying Room dgun nyi ldog gi cho ga Gün Nyidokgi ChogaWinter Solstice Ritual Ritual dge lugs Geluk Organization dge lugs pa Gelukpa Organization dge bshes geshé Term dge bshes pha bong khar grags pa Geshé Pabongkhar drakpa“Geshé Pabongkha” Person dge bshes brag dkar ba Geshé Drakkarwa 1032-1111 Person dge bshes ye shes dbang phyug Geshé Yeshé Wangchuk b. 20th century Person dge bshes seng ge Geshé Senggé d. 1990s Person dge slong gelongfully-ordained monk Term dgon pa gönpamonastery Term dgon pa gsar Gönpasar Monastery dgon pa gsar gönpa sarnew monastery Term dgon pa gsar sku phreng dang po ngag dbang don grub Gönpasar Kutreng Dangpo Ngawang Döndrupfirst Gönpasar incarnation Ngawang Döndrup 18th century Person dgon pa gsar ri khrod Gönpasar RitröGönpasar Hermitage Monastery mgon dkar GönkarWhite Mahākāla Buddha mgon khang gönkhangprotector deity chapel Term mgon po GönpoMahākāla Buddha mgon po gtor rgyag Gönpo TorgyakThrowing of the Torma to Mahākāla Ritual mgon po phyag drug Gönpo ChakdrukSix-Armed Mahākāla Buddha mgon po a gho Gönpo Agho Buddha ’gyed gepmoney offering to monks Term rgya mtsho mtha’ yas Gyatso Tayé Person rgya res Gyaré Buddha rgya res tshoms chen Gyaré Tsomchen Building rgyal chen karma ’phrin las Gyelchen Karma Trinlé Buddha rgyal ba lnga pa chen po Gyelwa Ngapa Chenpothe Great Fifth Dalai Lama 1617-1682 Person rgyal ba’i rigs lnga bla ri Gyelwé Riknga LariSoul Mountain of the Buddhas of the Five Families Place rgyal mo tshe ring bkra shis Gyelmo Tsering TrashiQueen Tsering Trashi 18th century Person rgyal tshab rje Gyeltsapjé 1364-1432 Person rgyal rabs gsal ba’i me long Gyelrap Selwé MelongThe Clear Mirror: A Royal History Tibetan text title rgyal rong khang tshan Gyelrong KhangtsenGyelrong Regional House Monastery subunit rgyugs gyukexamination Term rgyud stod GyütöUpper Tantric [College] Monastery rgyud smad GyüméLower Tantric [College] Monastery rgyud smad grwa tshang Gyümé DratsangThe Lower Tantric College Monastery rgyun ja gyünjadaily tea or prayer Term sgo gnyer gonyertemple attendant Term sgo srung gosungdoor-keeper Term sgom chen gomchenmeditator Term sgom sde nam kha’ rgyal mtshan Gomdé Namkha Gyeltsen 1532-1592 Person sgom sde pa Gomdepa 1532-1592 Person sgra ’dzin chu mig Dradzin ChumikSound-Catcher (or Ear) Spring Place sgrub khang drupkhangmeditation hut Term sgrub khang dge legs rgya mtsho Drupkhang Gelek Gyatso 1641-1713 Person sgrub khang pa Drupkhangpa 1641-1713 Person sgrub khang sprul sku Drupkhang TrülkuDrupkhang incarnation Person sgrub khang bla brang Drupkhang LabrangDrupkhang Lama’s estate Organization sgrub khang bla ma Drupkhang lama Person sgrub khang ri khrod Drupkhang RitröDrupkhang Hermitage Monastery sgrub grwa drupdrapractice center Term sgrub thabs druptapritual method of realization Term sgrub sde drupdépractice-center Term sgrub phug druppukmeditation cave Term sgrol chog DrölchokTārā Ritual Ritual sgrol ma DrölmaTārā Buddha sgrol ma lha khang Drölma LhakhangTārā Chapel Building brgya gyahundred Term brgyad gyéeight Term NgaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypengag dbang byams pa Ngawang Jampa 1682-1762 Person ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho Ngawang Lozang Gyatso 1617-1682 Person ngag dbang sman rgyal Ngawang Mengyal 20th century Person ngul gyi par khang ngülgyi parkhangmoney printing press Term sngags ngakmantra Term sngags pa ngakpatantric priest Term sngags pa grwa tshang Ngakpa DratsangTantric College Monastery CaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypegcig bu pa chikbuparecluse Term bca’ yig chayikconstitution Term ChaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypechab rdzing gling kha Chapdzing LingkhaPond Park Place chu mo yos chumo yöfemale-water-hare (year) Date chu bzang chupzanggood waters Term chu bzang Chupzang Monastery chu bzang dgon Chupzang GönChupzang Nunnery Monastery chu bzang ye shes rgya mtsho Chupzang Yeshé Gyatso 1789-1856 Person cho ga phyag len choga chaklenritual Term chos kyi rdo rje Chökyi Dorjé b. 18th century? Person chos kyi seng ge Chökyi Senggé Person chos skyong chökyongprotector deity Term chos khang rtse ba dgon pa Chökhang Tsewa GönpaChökhang Tsewa Monastery Monastery chos ’khor dus chen Chönkhor DüchenFestival of the Turning of the Wheel of the Doctrine Festival chos gos chögöyellow ceremonial robe Term chos rgyal ChögyelDharmarāja Buddha chos rgyal khri srong lde’u btsan Chögyel Trisong Detsenthe Buddhist king (of Tibet) Trisong Detsen 742-796 Person chos rgyal srong btsan sgam po Chögyel Songtsen Gampothe Buddhist king (of Tibet) Songtsen Gampo 617-650 Person chos thog chötokritual cycle Term chos sdings Chöding Monastery chos sdings ri khrod Chöding RitröChöding Hermitage Monastery chos me khang chömé khangbutter-lamp offering house Term chos mtshams chötsamdoctrine retreat Term chos gzhis chözhiestate lands Term chos rwa chöraDharma enclosure or Dharma courtyard Term mchod mjal chönjelworship Term mchod rten dkar chung Chöten KarchungLittle White Stūpa Monument ’chi med lha khang Chimé LhakhangChapel of Deathlessness Building JaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypeja bdun dang thug pa gnyis ja dün dang tukpa nyiseven teas and two soups Term jo khang Jokhang Monastery jo ston bsod nams rgyal mtshan Jotön Sönam Gyeltsen 17th century Person jo bo jowothe Lord Term jo bo mi bskyod rdo rje Jowo Mikyö Dorjé Buddha jo mo si si Jomo Sisi Place ’jam dpal bla ri Jampel LariMañjuśrī Peak Place ’jam dpal dbyangs kyi bla ri Jampelyangkyi Larithe Soul-Mountain of Mañjuśrī Place ’jam dbyangs grags pa Jamyang Drakpa Person ’jigs byed kyi me long Jikjekyi MelongMirror of Vajrabhairava Place ’jigs byed lha bcu gsum Jikjé Lha ChuksumThirteen-Deity Vajrabhairava Buddha ’jog po Jokpo Monastery ’jog po ngag dbang bstan ’dzin Jokpo Ngawang Tendzin b. 1748 Person ’jog po bla brang Jokpo LabrangJokpo Lama’s estate Organization ’jog po bla brang Jokpo LabrangJokpo Lama’s residence Organization ’jog po ri khrod Jokpo RitröJokpo Hermitage Monastery ’jog po rin po che Jokpo Rinpoché b. 1748 Person ’jog ri ngag dbang bstan ’dzin Jokri Ngawang Tendzin b. 1748 Person rje btsun nam mkha’ spyod sgrol rdor dbang mo Jetsün Namkhachö Dröldor WangmoJetsün (or Khachö) Dröldor Wangmo Person rje btsun bla ma ngag dbang rnam grol Jetsün Lama Ngawang Namdröl Person rje gzigs pa lnga ldan Jé Zikpa NgadenFive Visions of the Lord (Tsongkhapa) Painting series rje shes rab seng ge Jé Sherap Senggé 1383-1445 Person NyaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypenyang bran Nyangdren Place nyang bran rgyal chen Nyangdren Gyelchen Buddha nyi ’od pho brang Nyiwö PodrangPalace of the Rays of the Sun Room nye ba’i gnas bzhi nyewé né zhiFour Principal Sites Place gnyer pa nyerpamanager Term gnyer tshang nyertsangmanager’s room Term rnying nyingold Term rnying ma Nyingma Organization rnying ma sgrub grwa Nyingma drupdraNyingma practice center Term rnying ma pa Nyingmapa Organization rnying ma bla ma Nyingma lama Term snying khrag nyingdrakheart’s-blood Term bsnyen pa nyenpaapproximation retreat Term TaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypetā rā’i bla ri Taré Larithe Soul-Mountain of Tārā Place trak shad Trakshé Buddha gter tertreasure Term gter bdag srong btsan Terdak SongtsenTreasure Lord Songtsen Buddha gter nas ston pa terné tönpadiscovered as treasure Term rta mgrin TamdrinHayagrīva Buddha rta mgrin gsang sgrub Tamdrin SangdrupHayagrīva in his “Secret Accomplishment” form Buddha rta ma do nyag Tama Donyak Place rta tshag ye shes bstan pa’i mgon po Tatsak Yeshé Tenpé Gönpo 1760-1810 Person rtag brtan taktenpermanent and stable Term rtags brtan taktenstable sign Term rtags brten Takten Monastery rtags brten ri khrod Takten RitröTakten Hermitage Monastery rtags bstan taktenrevealed sign Term rtags bstan Takten Monastery rtags bstan sgrub phug Takten Druppuk Monastery rtags bstan ri khrod Takten RitröTakten Hermitage Monastery rten khang tenkhang Term mchod rten chöten stūpa Monument bstan ’gyur tengyurCollection of Translated Śāstras Tibetan text title bstan ’gyur lha khang Tengyur lhakhangTengyur chapel Building bstan nor mkhar rdo Tennor Khardo b. 1957 Person bstan ma Tenma Class of deities ThaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypethang ka tangka Term thang stong rgyal po Tangtong Gyelpo 1361-1485 Person thu’u bkwan Tuken 1737-1802 Person theg chen gso sbyong Tekchen SojongMahāyāna Precepts Term phyag stong spyan stong chaktong chentong Thousand-​Armed Thousand-​Eyed Avalokiteśvara Buddhist deity thogs med rin po che Tokmé Rinpoché 20th century Person thod smyon bsam grub Tönyön Samdrup 12th century Person thon mi Tönmi 7th century Person DaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypedā ma dama Term dā ma la nyag Damala Nyak Place da lai bla ma Dalai Lama Person da lai bla ma sku phreng dgu pa Dalai Lama Kutreng Gupathe Ninth Dalai Lama 1806-1815 Person da lai bla ma sku phreng brgyad pa ’jam dpal rgya mtsho Dalai Lama Kutreng Gyepa Jampel Gyatsothe Eighth Dalai Lama Jampel Gyatso 1758-1804 Person da lai bla ma sku phreng lnga pa Dalai Lama Kutreng Ngapathe Fifth Dalai Lama 1617-1682 Person da lai bla ma sku phreng lnga pa ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho Dalai Lama Kutreng Ngapa Ngawang Lozang Gyatsothe Fifth Dalai Lama Ngawang Lozang Gyatso 1617-1682 Person da lai bla ma sku phreng bcu bzhi pa Dalai Lama Kutreng Chuzhipathe Fourteenth Dalai Lama b. 1935 Person da lai bla ma sku phreng bcu gsum pa Dalai Lama Kutreng Chuksumpathe Thirteenth Dalai Lama 1876-1933 Person da lai bla ma sku phreng bcu gsum pa thub bstan rgya mtsho Dalai Lama Kutreng Chuksumpa Tupten Gyatsothe Thirteenth Dalai Lama Tupten Gyatso 1876-1933 Person da lai bla ma sku phreng drug pa Dalai Lama Kutreng Drukpathe Sixth Dalai Lama 1683-1706 Person da lai bla ma sku phreng bdun pa Dalai Lama Kutreng Dünpathe Seventh Dalai Lama 1708-1757 Person da lai bla ma sku phreng bdun pa bskal bzang rgya mtsho Dalai Lama Kutreng Dünpa Kelzang Gyatsothe Seventh Dalai Lama Kelzang Gyatso 1708-1757 Person da lai bla ma sku phreng gsum pa Dalai Lama Kutreng Sumpathe Third Dalai Lama 1543-1588 Person ḍākinī dakiniḍākinī Term dam chen chos rgyal Damchen ChögyelDharmarāja Buddha dung dkar blo bzang ’phrin las Dungkar Lozang Trinlé 1927-1997 Person dung dkar tshig mdzod Dungkar TsikdzöDungkar Dictionary Tibetan text title dung dkar tshig mdzod chen mo Dungkar Tsikdzö ChenmoThe Great Dungkar Dictionary Tibetan text title dung dkar rin po che Dungkar Rinpoché 1927-1997 Person dur khrod durtröcemetery Term dus ’khor DükhorKālacakra Buddha de bi ko ṭi Debi KotiDebikoṭi Place de mo sku phreng brgyad pa ngag dbang blo bzang thub bstan ’jigs med rgya mtsho Demo Kutreng Gyepa Ngawang Lozang Tupten Jikmé Gyatsothe eighth Demo incarnation Ngawang Lozang Tupten Jikmé Gyatso 1778-1819 Person dog bde Dodé Place dog sde DokdéDodé Place dog sde lho smon Dodé Lhomön Place dwags po grwa tshang Dakpo DratsangDakpo College Monastery drag phyogs kyi las drakchokkyi léwrathful magical powers Term drang nges legs bshad snying po Drangngé Lekshé NyingpoThe Essence of Eloquence that Distinguishes between the Provisional and Definitive Meaning Tibetan text title drug pa tshe bzhi Drukpa TsezhiSixth-Month Fourth-Day Festival drung pa brtson ’grus rgyal mtshan Drungpa Tsöndrü Gyeltsen fl. 17th century Person drung pa rin po che Drungpa Rinpoché fl. 17th century Person gdan sa densaseats of learning Term gdan sa gsum Densa Sumthe three great Geluk seats of learning gdugs dkar Dukar Buddha gdugs pa’i bla ri Dukpé Larithe Parasol Soul Mountain Place gdugs yur dgon Dukyur Gön Monastery gdung rten dungtenfunerary stūpa Term bdag bskyed dakkyéself-generation Term bdag ’jug danjukself-initiation Term bde chen pho brang Dechen PodrangPalace of Great Bliss Room bde mchog DemchokCakrasaṃvara Buddha bde mchog gi pho brang Demchokgi PodrangPalace of Cakrasaṃvara Place bde mchog bla mchod Demchok LachöOffering to the Master Based on the Deity Cakrasaṃvara Ritual bde mchog bla ri Demchok LariSoul Mountain of Demchok Place mdo skal bzang Do KelzangSūtra of Good Fortune Tibetan text title ’du khang dukhangassembly hall Term ’dra sku drakusimulacrum (type of statue) Term rdo sku dokustone image Term rdo cung cong zhi’i phug pa Dochung Chongzhi PukpaCavern of Dochung Chongzhi Place rdo rje ’jigs byed Dorjé Jikjé Vajrabhairava Buddha rdo rje rnal ’byor ma Dorjé NeljormaVajrayoginī Buddha rdo rje btsun mo Dorjé Tsünmo Buddha rdo rje g.yu sgron ma Dorjé Yudrönma Buddha rdo rje shugs ldan Dorjé Shukden Buddha rdo rje sems dpa’ Dorjé SempaVajrasattva Buddha rdo gter Dodé Place rdo ring Doring Clan sdig pa chen po dikpa chenpogreat sin Term sde srid desiregent Term sde srid sangs rgyas rgya mtsho Desi Sanggyé Gyatso 1653-1705 Person NaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypena chung rtse mo ri Nachung Tsemo Ri Place na ro mkha’ spyod ma Naro Kachöma Buddha na ro mkha’ spyod ma’i bdag ’jug Naro Khachömé DanjukSelf-initiation Ritual of Naro Khachöma Ritual nag chu Nakchu Place nag chu zhabs brtan dgon pa Nakchu Zhapten Gönpa Monastery nag ril chen po zhig nakril chenpo zhika large dark shape Term nang rten gtso bo nangten tsowomain inner image(s) Term nam mkha’ rgyal mtshan Namkha Gyeltsen 1532-1592 Person nor bu gling kha Norbu Lingkha Place gnas kyi bla ma nekyi lamahead lama Term gnas sgo gdong Negodong Monastery gnas sgo gdong ri khrod Negodong Hermitage Monastery gnas bcu lha khang Nechu LhakhangTemple of the Sixteen Arhats Building gnas chung Nechung Buddha gnas brtan bcu drug Neten ChudrukSixteen Arhats Ritual gnas brtan bcu drug Neten ChudrukSixteen Arhats Buddha gnas brtan phyag mchod Neten ChakchöOffering of Homage to the (Sixteen) Arhats Ritual gnas brtan bla ri Neten Larithe Soul-Mountain of the Arhats Place gnas bdag nedaksite deity Term gnas nang Nenang Monastery gnas nang dgon pa Nenang GönpaNenang Nunnery Monastery gnas nang ri khrod Nenang RitröNenang Hermitage Monastery gnas mo Nemo Place gnas rtsa chen po né tsa chenpoa holy site Term gnas ri nerimountain-abode Term rnam grol lag bcangs Namdröl LakchangLiberation in Our Hands Tibetan text title rnam rgyal Namgyel Monastery rnam sras NamséVaiśravana Buddha rnam sras bang mdzod Namsé BangdzöTreasure-House of Vaiśravaṇa Room rnal ’byor ma’i bdag ’jug Neljormé DanjukSelf-Initiation Ritual of Vajrayoginī Ritual PaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypepadma ’byung gnas Pema JungnéPadmasambhava 8th century Person paṇ chen sku phreng gsum pa Penchen Kutreng Sumpathe Third Penchen Lama Person paṇ chen bde legs nyi ma Penchen Delek Nyima 16th century Person paṇ chen bla ma Penchen Lama Person paṇ chen blo bzang ye shes Penchen Lozang Yeshé 1663-1737 Person po ta la Potala Building po to ba rin chen gsal Potowa Rinchen Sel 1027/31-1105 Person dpa’ grong shag pa Padrong Shakpa Clan dpal ldan lha mo Pelden Lhamo Buddha dpal ’byor rab rgyas Peljor Rapgyé 1604-1669 Person dpal lha mo Pel Lhamo Buddha dpe cha ba pechawatextualist Term dpe mtshams petsamtextual retreat Term dpyid kyi rgyal mo’i klu dbyangs Chikyi Gyelmo LuyangThe Nāga Song of the Queen of Springtime Tibetan text title spang lung Panglung Monastery spang lung ri khrod Panglung RitröPanglung Hermitage Monastery spangs lung sku phreng dang po blo bzang thugs rje Panglung Kutreng Dangpo Lozang Tukjéthe first Panglung incarnation Lozang Tukjé 1770-ca. 1835 Person spo ’bo ra spyi khang Bombora Chikhang Building spyi mi chimirepresentative Term sprul sku trülkuincarnation Term PhaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypepha dam pa Pa Dampa b. 11th century Person pha dam pa sangs rgyas Pa Dampa Sanggyé b. 11th century Person pha bong PabongThe Boulder Building pha bong kha Pabongkha Monastery pha bong kha PabongkhaThe Boulder House Building pha bong kha rgya mtsho mtha’ yas Pabongkha Gyatso Tayé b. 18th century Person pha bong kha bde chen snying po Pabongkha Dechen Nyingpo 1878-1941 Person pha bong kha pa Pabongkhapa 1878-1941 Person pha bong kha sprul sku Pabongkha TrülkuPabongkha incarnation Person pha bong kha bla brang Pabongkha LabrangPabongkha Lama’s estate Organization pha bong kha ri khrod Pabongkha RitröPabongkha Hermitage Monastery pha bong kha rin po che Pabongkha Rinpoché 1878-1941 Person pha bong kha’i dkar chag Pabongkhé KarchakA Catalogue of Pabongkha Tibetan text title phag mo gru pa Pakmo Drupa Organization phun tshogs ’phrin las Püntsok Trinlé 20th century Person phun tshogs rab rgyas Püntsok Rapgyé 20th century Person phur lcog Purchok Monastery phur lcog sku phreng gnyis pa blo bzang byams pa Purchok Kutreng Nyipa Lozang Jampathe second Purchok incarnation Lozang Jampa 1763-1823 Person phur lcog sku phreng dang po ngag dbang byams pa Purchok Kutreng Dangpo Ngawang Jampathe first Purchok incarnation Ngawang Jampa 1682-1762 Person phur lcog sku phreng gsum pa blo bzang tshul khrims byams pa rgya mtsho Purchok Kutreng Sumpa Lozang Tsültrim Jampa Gyatsothe third Purchok incarnation Lozang Tsültrim Jampa Gyatso 1825-1901 Person phur lcog sku phreng gsum pa yongs ’dzin byams pa rgya mtsho Purchok Kutreng Sumpa Yongdzin Jampa Gyatsothe third Purchok incarnation Yongdzin Jampa Gyatso Person phur lcog ngag dbang byams pa Purchok Ngawang Jampa 1682-1762 Person phur lcog bla brang Purchok LabrangPurchok Lama’s estate Organization phur lcog bla ma Purchok lama Person phur lcog blo bzang tshul khrims byams pa rgya mtsho Purchok Lozang Tsültrim Jampa Gyatso 1825-1901 Person phur lcog ri Purchok RiPurchok Mountain Place phur lcog ri khrod Purchok RitröPurchok Hermitage Monastery phur lcog rigs gsum byang chub gling gi byung ba mdo tsam brjod pa Purchok Riksum Jangchup Linggi Jungwa Dotsam JöpaA Brief Explanation of the History of Purchok Riksum Jangchup Ling Tibetan text title phur lcog rigs gsum byang chub gling gi byung ba mdo tsam brjod pa dad gsum ’dren pa’i lcags kyu Purchok Riksum Jangchup Linggi Jungwa Dotsam Jöpa Desum Drenpé ChakkyuA Brief History of Purchok Riksum Jangchup Ling: A Hook to Draw in the Three Types of Faith Tibetan text title phur lcog rin po che Purchok Rinpoché Person phur bu lcog Purbuchok Monastery phur bu lcog ri khrod PurbuchokRitrö Monastery phur byung PurjungA Brief History of Purchok Tibetan text title pho brang ngos podrang ngöthe actual palace Term pho lha nas Polhané 1689-1747 Person phyag mdzod chandzöadministrative head Term phyi dar chidarlater propagation period Term phrin las rgya mtsho Trinlé Gyatso d. 1667 Person ’phags pa Pakpa 1235-1280 Person ’phags pa shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa brgyad stong pa’i mdo Pakpa Sherapkyi Paröltu Chinpa Gyetongpé DoEight Thousand-Line Perfection of Wisdom Sūtra Āryāṣṭasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra Tibetan text title ’phan po Penpo Place ’pho ba powatransition of consciousness Term BaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypebar skor Barkor Place sangs rgyas sanggyé Buddha Buddhist deity bai ḍūrya ser po Baidurya SerpoYellow Lapis Tibetan text title bod ljongs nang bstan Böjong NangtenTibetan Buddhism Tibetan journal title bod ljongs mi dmangs dpe skrun khang Böjong Mimang Petrünkhang Publisher byang JangNorthern Tibet Place byang chub chos ’phel Jangchup Chöpel 1756-1838 Person byang chos ’khor gling Jang Chökhor Ling Monastery byams khang JamkhangMaitreya Chapel Room byams chen chos rje Jamchen Chöjé 1354-1435 Person byams pa JampaMaitreya Buddha byams pa gling Jampa Ling Monastery byams pa bstan ’dzin ’phrin las rgya mtsho Jampa Tendzin Trinlé Gyatso 1878-1941 Person byams pa thub bstan rin po che Jampa Tupten Rinpoché 20th century Person byin can jinchenblessed Term byin rlabs jinlapblessing Term byes Jé Monastery byes mkhan po rgyal mtshan don grub Jé Khenpo Gyeltsen Döndrup 17th century Person byes sgom sde khang tshan Jé Gomdé KhangtsenJé Gomdé Regional House Monastery subunit byes ’du khang Jé DukhangJé College Assembly Hall Building byes har gdong khang tshan Jé Hamdong KhangtsenHamdong Regional House of the Jé College Monastery subunit brag mchod sa Drak ChösaOffering Place Cave Place brag ri Drakri Monastery brag ri drakricrag Term brag ri sku phreng gnyis pa rgya mtsho chos ’byor Drakri Kutreng Nyipa Gyatso Chönjorthe second Drakri incarnation Gyatso Chönjor b. 19th century Person brag ri rgya mtsho mtha’ yas Drakri Gyatso Tayé Person brag ri sprul sku Drakri TrülkuDrakri incarnation Person brag ri sprul sku blo bzang theg mchog dbang po Drakri Trülku Lozang Tekchok Wangpothe Drakri incarnation Lozang Tekchok Wangpo Person brag ri bla brang Drakri LabrangDrakri Lama’s estate Organization brag ri bla ma Drakri lama Person brag ri ri khrod Drakri RitröDrakri Hermitage Monastery brag ri rin po che Drakri Rinpoché Person bla brang labranglama’s estate Term bla ma lama Term bla ma mchod pa tshog Lama Chöpa TsokOffering-Ritual to the Lama Ritual bla ma zhang Lama Zhang 1123-1193 Person bla ri larisoul mountain Term blo bzang sgom chung Lozang GomchungLozang the Little Meditator Person blo bzang ye shes bstan ’dzin rgya mtsho Lozang Yeshé Tendzin Gyatso 1901-1981 Person dbang ’dus ’khor lo Wangdü KhorloCycle for Gathering Power Tibetan text title dbang phyug chen po Wangchuk ChenpoMaheśvara Buddha dbu gdugs ri UdukriMount Parasol Place dbu mdzad umdzéchant leader Term dben gnas enésolitary site Term dben sa ensasolitary place Term dben sa pa ensaparecluse Term dben sa pa EnsapaEnsapa 1504/5-1565/6 Person dben sa pa blo bzang don grub Ensapa Lozang Döndrup 1504/5-1565/6 Person dbyar gnas yarnérainy-season retreat Term ’bras spungs Drepung Monastery ’brog pa drokpanomad Term sba ri Bari sba ri bla brang Bari LabrangBari Lama’s estate Organization sba ri bla ma Bari lama Person sba ri ri khrod Bari RitröBari Hermitage Monastery sba ri rin po che Bari Rinpoché Person sbyin bdag jindakpatron Term MaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypema cig lab sgron Machik Lapdrön 12th century Person ma ṇi bka’ ’bum Mani KabumThe Compendium on the Maṇi [Mantra] Tibetan text title ma ṇi ’khor lo mani khorlomani wheel Term ma ṇi lha khang mani lhakhangmani [wheel] temple Term maṇḍala mendelmaṇḍala Term mi chos gtsang ma bcu drug michö tsangma chudruksixteen rules of purity for the populace Term mi dbang byams pa Miwang JampaMaitreya as Lord of Men Buddha mi g.yo ba MiyowaAcala Buddha mi la’i brag Milé DrakCave of Mila Cave mi ser miserserf Term me tog char babs metog charbaprained flowers Term me mo phag memopakfemale-fire-pig (year) Date mes dbon Mewön Person mo barha nyag Mo Barha Nyak Place dmar gdung mardungmummified corpse Term rmog tho ’go Moktogo Place smad Mé Monastery smad ’du khang Mé DukhangMé College Assembly Hall Building smad bla zur blo bzang don grub Mé Lazur Lozang Döndrup Person sman bla MenlaMedicine Buddha Buddha sman bla MenlaMedicine Buddha Ritual sman bla bde gshegs brgyad Menla Deshek GyéRitual of the Eight Medicine Buddhas Ritual sman bla bde gshegs brgyad Menla Deshek GyéEight Medicine Buddhas Buddha sman bla yid bzhin dbang rgyal Menla Yizhin WanggyelMedicine Buddha [Ritual]: Yizhin Wanggyel Ritual smyung gnas nyungnéfasting ritual Ritual TsaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypetsa khang tsakhangclay tablet repository Term tsa tsa tsatsapressed-clay tablets Term tsong kha brgyad bcu Tsongkha GyepchuEighty Deeds of Tsongkhapa Series of paintings tsong kha pa Tsongkhapa 1357-1419 Person gtsang Tsang Place btsan khang tsenkhangtsen chapel Term rtsa shes ṭīk chen Tsashé TikchenGreat Commentary on the Prajñāmūla Tibetan text title rtsa gsum lha khang Tsasum Lhakhang“Three Roots” Chapel Room rtsam pa tsampa Term TshaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypetsha khang tshan Tsa KhangtsenTsa Regional House Monastery subunit tshal pa bka’ brgyud Tselpa Kagyü Organization tshe mchog gling Tsechokling Monastery tshe dpag med lha dgu Tsepakmé LhaguNine Deities [related to] Amitāyus Buddha tshes bcu phug TsechupukCave of the Tenth Day Room tshes bcu lha khang Tsechu LhakhangTemple of the Tenth Day Room tshogs chen TsokchenGreat Assembly Hall Building tshogs chen sprul sku Tsokchen Trülkuincarnation of the Great Assembly Hall Term tshogs gtam tsoktampublic admonition Term tshogs bdag lag na ’khor lo Tsokdak Lakna KhorloCycle on Gaṇeśa Tibetan text title tshong pa tsongpamerchant Term tshoms chen shar Tsomchen SharEastern Assembly Hall Building mtshan zhabs tsenzhapassistant tutor Term mtshams pa tsamparetreatant Term mtsho tsolake Term mtsho sngon po Tso NgönpoKokonor Place mtshon cha’i ’khor lo tsönché khorlowheel of weapons Term DzaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypemdzo dzo Term ’dzam gling rgyas bshad Dzamling GyeshéExtensive Explanation of the World Tibetan text title WaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypewāginḍamatibhadrapaṭu bandashāsadharasagara Vagindamatibhadrapatu Bandashasadharasagara Person ZhaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypezhang ’gro ba’i mgon po g.yu brag pa Zhang Drowé Gönpo Yudrakpa 1123-1193 Person zhabs rjes zhapjéfootprint Term zhabs brtan zhaptenritual Term zhi byed ZhijéPacification Organization zhing pa zhingpafarmer Term gzhi bdag zhidaksite-spirit Term gzhung dgon zhunggönstate monastery Term gzhung sgo zhunggomain door Term gzhung pa khang tshan Zhungpa KhangtsenZhungpa Regional House Monastery subunit ZaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypezangs dkar ZangkarZangskar Place zangs mdog dpal ri Zangdok PelriGlorious Copper-Colored Mountain Place zangs ri Zangri Place zangs ri mkhar dmar Zangri Karmar Monastery gzim khang zimkhangresidence Term gzims khang gong ma Zimkhang GongmaUpper Residence Building gzungs ’bul zungbülto offer zung [inside of statues] Term bzod pa rgya mtsho Zöpa Gyatso 1672-1749 Person ’AExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateType’od zer phung po che Özer PungpochéGreat Heap of Light Place ’ol khar ÖlkharÖlkhar Place YaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypeyang gam yanggamwealth-box Term yi dam yidamtutelary deities Term yig cha yikcha(a monastery’s) ritual texts Term yul nyer bzhi’i ya rgyal/ de bi ko ṭi dang ming gzhan pha bong kha byang chub shing gi nags khrod du bkod pa’i dkar chag dad ldan padmo rgyas byed gzi sbyin ’od stong ’bar ba’i nor bu Yül Nyerzhi Yagyel/ Debi Koti dang Mingzhen Pabongkha Jangchup Shinggi Naktrödu Kopé Karchak Deden Pemo Gyejé Zijin Ötong Barwé NorbuAn Inventory of [the Institution that,] from among the Four Sites, is Debikoṭi, a.k.a. Pabongkha, Forest of Bodhi Trees: A Jewel Radiating a Thousand Rays, the Resplendent Ripener of the Lotus of the Faithful Tibetan text title ye shes rgyal mtshan Yeshé Gyeltsen 1713-1793 Person yongs ’dzin ye shes rgyal mtshan Yongdzin Yeshé Gyeltsen 1713-1793 Person RaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypera kha brag Rakhadrak Monastery ra kha brag ri khrod Rakhadrak RitröRakhadrak Hermitage Monastery ra kha brag a zhu bsod nams Rakhadrak Azhu Sönam b. 17th century Person ra mo che RamochéGreat Female Goat [Temple] Building ra sa Rasa Place rang byon rangjönself-arisen image Term rab byung rapjungcalendrical cycle Term rab gsal rapselsun room Term ri rithe mountain Term ri khrod ritröhermitage Term ri khrod pa ritröpahermit Term ri ’khor rikhormountain circumambulation ri ’go sgo ma Rigo Goma Place ri chen gsum Richen SumThree Great Mountains Place rigs pa’i rgya mstho Rikpé GyatsoOcean of Reasoning Tibetan text title rigs ’dzin chos kyi rdo rje Rikdzin Chökyi Dorjé b. 1790? Person rigs gsum mgon po Riksum GönpoThree Protectors Buddha rigs gsum mgon po lha khang Riksum Gönpo LhakhangTemple of the Three Protectors Building rin po che rinpoché Term rus sbal pho rübelpomale turtle Place rus sbal mo rübelmofemale turtle Place rwa sgreng Radreng d. 1947 Person rwa sgreng sku sgreng lnga pa Radreng Kutreng Ngapathe fifth Radreng incarnation d. 1947 Person rwa sgreng rin po che Radreng Rinpoché d. 1947 Person LaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypelam rim lamrimgraded stages of the path Term lam rim ’jam dpal zhal lung Lamrim Jampel ZhellungThe Revelations of Mañjuśrī: A Lamrim Tibetan text title lam rim bde lam Lamrim DelamThe Easy Path: A Lamrim Tibetan text title las rung lerungenabling retreat Term li thang Litang Place lo gsar LosarNew Year Festival ShaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypeshug pa’i nags bla ri Shukpé Nak LariThe Soul-Mountain of Juniper Forests Place shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa’i mdo Sherapkyi Paröltu Chinpé DoPerfection of Wisdom Sūtras Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra Tibetan text title gshin rje’i rang thag Shinjé Rangtakthe Mill of the Shinjé Term bshes gnyen tshul khrims Shenyen Tsültrim 20th century Person SaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypesa skya Sakya Organization sa skya pa Sakyapa Organization sa skya pa bsod nams rgyal mtshan Sakyapa Sönam Gyeltsen Person sa brtag sataksite investigation Term sa bdag sadakgeo-spirits Term sa dpyad sachésite investigations Term sa pho bya sapojamale-earth-bird (year) Date sa sbyang sajangpurity of the site Term sangs rgyas rgya mtsho Sanggyé Gyatso 1653-1705 Person sad mi mi bdun semi midünthe first seven Tibetan monks Term sin dhu ra sindura sindhura Term se ra Sera Monastery se ra byes grwa tshang Sera Dratsang JéSera Jé College Monastery se ra sngags pa grwa tshang Sera Ngakpa DratsangSera Tantric College Monastery se ra chos sdings Sera Chöding Monastery se ra chos sdings ri khrod Sera Chöding RitröSera Chöding Hermitage Monastery se ra theg chen khang gsar Sera Tekchen Khangsar Building se ra theg chen gling Sera Tekchen LingSera Mahāýāna Monastery Monastery se ra pa ’jam dbyangs grags pa Serapa Jamyang Drakpa b. 17th century Person se ra spyi so Sera chisoSera as a whole Monastery se ra phur pa Sera purpaSera dagger Term se ra byes Sera JéSera Jé (College) Monastery se ra dbu rtse Sera Utsé Monastery se ra dbu rtse Sera utséSera peak Term se ra dbu rtse ri khrod Sera Utsé RitröSera Utsé Hermitage Monastery se ra smad Sera MéSera Mé (College) Monastery se ra rtse Sera tséSera peak Term se ra tshogs chen Sera TsokchenSera Great Assembly Hall Building se ra’i ri khrod Seré ritröhermitage of Sera Term se ra’i ri ’khor Seré RikhorSera Mountain Circumambulation Circuit Pilgrimage cycle seng gdong ma SengdongmaLion-Headed Ḍākinī Buddha ser smad thos bsam nor gling grwa tshang gi chos ’byung lo rgyus nor bu’i phreng ba Sermé Tösam Norling Dratsanggi Chöjung Logyü Norbü TrengwaA History of the Sermé Tösam Norling College: A Garland of Jewels Tibetan text title ser smad lo rgyus Sermé LogyüA History of Sermé Tibetan text title srung ma sungmaprotector deity Term srog snying soknyinglife-essence Term srong btsan sgam po Songtsen Gampo 604-650 Person slob dpon loppönsenior teacher Term gsag sbyang sakjangaccumulation and purification Term gsang ba ’dus pa Sangwa DüpaGuhyasamāja Buddha gsar sarnew Term gsung byon ma sungjönmaspeaking-statue Term gser ma hā Ser Maha Buddha gser yig pa seryikpabearer of the golden letter Term gso sbyong Sojongmonastic confession ritual Ritual bsangs gsol dar ’dzugs sangsöl dardzuk(to) make burnt juniper offerings and raise flags Term HaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypeha ha rgod pa’i dur khrod Haha Göpé Durtrö Place har gdong khang tshan Hamdong KhangtsenHamdong Regional House Monastery subunit hwa shang Hashang Person lha mo Lhamo Buddha lha mo khar Lhamokhar Place lha mo nyi ma gzhon nu Lhamo Nyima Zhönnu Buddha lha mo nyi gzhon Lhamo Nyizhön Buddha lha btsun rin po che Lhaptsün Rinpoché Person lha btsun rin po che’i bla brang Lhaptsün Rinpoché LabrangLhaptsün Rinpoché’s estate Organization lha btsun rin po che’i bla brang Lhaptsün Rinpoché Labrangestate of Lhaptsün Rinpoché Organization lha bzang Lhazang d. 1717 Person lha bzang khāng Lhazang KhangLhazang Khan d. 1717 Person lha lung dpal gyi rdo rje Lhalung Pelgyi Dorjé 9th century Person lha sa Lhasa Place lha sa’i dgon tho Lhasé GöntoA Catalogue of the Monasteries of Lhasa Tibetan text title lha sa’i dgon tho rin chen spungs rgyan Lhasé Gönto Rinchen PunggyenA Catalogue of the Monasteries of Lhasa: A Heap of Jewels Tibetan text title lho pa khang tshan Lhopa KhangtsenLhopa Regional House Monastery subunit a kha bsod nams bzang po Akha Sönam Zangpo b. 17th century Person AExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypea khu rin po che Akhu Rinpoché 1803-1875 Person a mdo rdo rje sku ’bum Amdo Dorjé Kumbum Place a ma amamother Term oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ om mani peme humoṃ maṇi padme hūṃ Mantra Notes [1] My treatment of this hermitage (Ritrö) derives in part from a short history of the nunnery published in a small booklet in Tibet: Ngawang Mengyal, Gargön Samten Linggi Logyü Münsel Tongwa Dönden [A History of Gargön Samten Ling: Clearing Away Darkness, Meaningful to Behold] (Lha sa: ?, 1997) [hereafter Garlo]. I have also consulted Bshes gnyen tshul khrims, Lhasé Gönto Rinchen Punggyen [A Catalogue of the Monasteries of Lhasa: A Heap of Jewels (Bod ljongs mi dmangs dpe skrun khang, 2001), 30-37 [hereafter Lhasé Gönto]. [2] According to Garlo, 27, before 1959 the nuns had no formal estate lands (chözhi) or serfs (miser). They did, however, have at their disposal the products (like butter) produced by a herd of about five-hundred animals that were kept in the northern Tibetan plateau. These dairy products were brought down to the monastery on a yearly basis in the spring by the nomads who were in charge of these flocks. [3] A reddish powder used for ritual purposes. [4] Conches are often used as musical instruments in Tibetan rituals. A hole is made at one end of the conch, and when blown through, it emits a sound not unlike that of a trombone. [5] Garlo, 11. [6] Garlo, 12. [7] Cakrasaṃvara has three eyes. The other two are located at Pabongkha and Takten hermitages. [8] The number of pillars used to support the roof of a building was a standard way of measuring the interior size of buildings. The Garu temple is today an eight-pillar temple, although today it also has a two-pillar rear chapel, which is where the statuary is kept (see Garlo, 33). It appears that before 1959 the temple was not subdivided in this way (into an altar portion and an assembly-hall portion) but was instead one large room with the altar being located in the northern portion where the back chapel exists today. The account of the images in the temple that follows is based on Garlo, chapter 3, 20-24. [9] Lhasé Gönto, 32, states that it was a statue of Pa Dampa Sanggyé when he was two years old, and claims that it was this statue that was the chief object of worship of the nunnery. [10] The text was been reproduced in Garlo, 36-39. The author of Garlo, 40, claims that Tuken (1737-1802) believes that this short text is the basis for the biography of Pa Dampa Sanggyé written by Chökyi Senggé. [11] Lhasé Gönto, 32, states that the tangkas were of the former lives of Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), and that they came from Amdo Dorjé Kumbum. [12] Lhasé Gönto, 32, mentions only a statue of the Fifth Dalai Lama (Dalai Lama Kutreng Ngapa). [13] Lhasé Gönto, 32, mentions only a statue of the first Drakri Rinpoché. [14] According to Lhasé Gönto, 33, this deity was the chief protector deity of the monastery. This deity is not mentioned in Garlo. [15] For a more detailed treatment of the “footprint collection” at Garu see Lhasé Gönto, 36. [16] The account that follows is based largely on Garlo, chapter 2, 17-19, although I have supplemented this with some additional information found in Lhasé Gönto. [17] Lhasé Gönto gives the more precise date of 1113 for the events that are about to be recounted. [18] Lhasé Gönto, 31, calls this Mo Barha Nyak. [19] Of course, since history is always written “by the victors” – in this case the Gelukpas – we do not know whether in fact the nuns asked to be incorporated into the Geluk school or whether they were forced to do so. Whatever the case, it should be noted that Pabongkha is the hermitage closest to Garu, and that simply from a geographical viewpoint it makes sense to administratively locate the nunnery under the aegis of Pabongkha. Eventually the Drakri lamas moved their base of operations from Pabongkha to Drakri Hermitage (Drakri Ritrö), perhaps during the life of Gyatso Tayé himself. [20] Lhasé Gönto, 31, states that this took place in 1792. [21] For the complete ritual cycle of the nunnery, see Lhasé Gönto, 33-34.#!essay=/cabezon/sera/herm/garu/